In discussing the hierarchy of union power and what it has become, this article fails to mention a solution. That goes back to the National Labor Relations Act of 1935, aka the Wagner Act. The Act actually gave the trade unions a monopoly over the workers: join, pay dues, or no jobs. It also barred company unions. (The Act also shifted power from We, the people, over our elected politicians to special interests. How? Just follow the dues money into the politician’s pockets.)
There is no reason anymore why the unions are not strictly volunteer organizations like all the other American organizations are. If workers want company unions, they should have them. Except for the ‘Unfair Labor Practices’, section of the Wagner Act, everything else should be replaced!